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The first essay is by Theodore F. Zucker and Lois M. Zucker and deals with the " a n i d protein factor" and vitamin BU in animal nutrition. While mostly treating of recent work in this field, the discussion also includes the background of the subject. The nutritional significance of cobalt a8 found in BIB is discussed. A subject that has been rather neglected in biochemical review periodicals, "Pyridoxine and fat metabolism," is presented by Henry Sherman.

This relationship, he shows, is clearly demonstrated but not vet understood. Wulaen contribute a review of work, both their own extensive researches and those of others, on the antistiffness factor required by guinea pigs. The data presented and the accompanying illustrations make a oanvincing case for the existence of this factor. Apperently investigators who fail to demonstrate it do not correctly prepare the deficiency Aid "Vitsmins and metabolism in nenrospora" is the subject of a review by Hershel K.

Mitchell who gives an instructive picture As STATED in the intraduction, "The approach of the author to of the many research uses to which this useful and mutative his subject is that of the sndytieal chemist who is more concerned organism may be put.

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A short essay on the physiology of relaxin is presented by F. The biochemistry of relaxin is briefly instrument of physical research. The book is in two parts. Part I deal8 with the theory and use ject treated by R. Courier of Paris. The English translation was of the instruments of analytical spectroscopy. The descriptions prepared by A. An unusually helpful review by R. Stehle of McGill Uniof spectrographs, excitation sources, and densitometers are kxeellent and critical.

The latter were reviewed in Volume VII of this series. Shoppee of the The photographic process and its limitations are discussed. This is followed by an unusually clear explanation of the methods University of Wales. The subject is "Steroid configuration. A chapter is devoted to direct reading spec- chemical properties of specific steroids leading to theories of the trometers and modern instruments employing this principle, such stearic shape of the moleoules.

This complex matter, always as the ARL "Quantometer. Semen was collected at two week intervals from each buck 5 times during each of mild and hot period by artificial vagina using a female teaser rabbit. The levels of B 12 , folic acid, testosterone and cortisol in both plasma and seminal plasma were estimated by the radioimmunoassay RIA technique using the coated tubes kits, Diagnostic Systems Laboratories, Inc.

The tracer in the two vitamins was labelled with 57 Co and the tracer in the two hormones was labelled with iodine I. Zink and selenium concentrations in plasma and seminal plasma were analyzed by a single dilution micro methods using Perkin-Elmer Crop, model B Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, Norwalk, C. Effects of heat stress conditions of hot summer season on testosterone hormonal level. The overall mean of testosterone levels in blood plasma and seminal plasma under mild climate were Results in Table 1 showed also that testosterone level was not affected significantly due to week of exposure period length exposure period from week 2 to week 10 in each of mild and hot climatic conditions.

With prolonged heat exposure, the hypothalamic hormone releasing factors are suppressed and consequently, the pituitary hormones and other hormones, either autonomous or pituitary controlled are decreased [14].


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The hormonal concentrations are altered by high environmental temperature, particularly; the hormonal secretions are known to be of major importance in productive and reproductive performance which are thyroid hormones, male and female sex hormones, insulin and aldosterone [15]. In addition, the drastic changes that occur in biological functions in animals like depression in feed intake and utilization as well as disturbances in water, protein, energy and mineral metabolism may be responsible in reducing the secretion of testosterone.

This result indicated that testosterone level in plasma was Effects of heat stress conditions of hot summer season on cortisol hormonal level.

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The overall mean of cortisol levels in blood plasma and seminal plasma under mild climate were 4. Cortisol level was not affected significantly due to length exposure period of bucks to hot mild and hot climatic conditions. This result indicated that cortisol level in plasma was nearly 2 or 3 multiply with cortisol level in seminal plasma under mild or hot climatic conditions, respectively.

The increase in cortisol level which occurs during the chronic heat stress is attributed to the fact that cortisol is thermogenic in animals. Adrenocortical activity under thermal stress is a thermoregulatory protective mechanism preventing metabolic heat production in a hot environment for animal adaptation to heat stress conditions [14]. Activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and the consequent increase of plasma glucocorticoid concentrations are perhaps the most important responses of animals to stressful conditions.

Adrenal corticoids, mainly cortisol, elicit physiological adjustments which enable animals to tolerate stressful conditions [16] [17]. Cortisol secretion from the adrenal gland through increase in ACTH secretion by the anterior pituitary gland often increases greatly in stressful situations [14]. Animals respond to stress by releasing ACTH from the anterior pituitary gland which causes the adrenal cortex to release aldosterone and corticosterone [18]. Activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and the consequent increase of plasma glucocorticoids concentrations are perhaps the most important responses of animals to stressful conditions.

Adrenal corticoids, mainly cortisol, elicit physiological adjustments which enable animals to tolerate stressful conditions [19]. In addition, hormonal secretions are known to be of major importance in body thermoregulation which are cortisol and aldosterone [15].


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  5. The drastic changes that occur in biological functions in animals may be responsible in increasing the catabolic hormones like cortisol. Effects heat stress conditions of summer season on vitamins B 9 level. Folic acid vit. The overall mean of vit. B 9 levels in blood plasma and seminal plasma under mild climate were 8. The percentages decrease in vit. This result indicated that Folic acid level in plasma was 1. However, vit. B 9 level in rabbits was not affected by length of exposure period under mild or hot climatic conditions. Effects heat stress conditions of summer season on vitamins B 12 level.

    B 12 were B 12 level in seminal plasma under mild climate was B 12 level was not affected by exposure weeks either under mild or under hot climatic conditions. B 12 level in plasma was 1. B 12 level in seminal plasma under the tow conditions Table 4.

    Vitamins and hormones. Advances in research and applications. Vol. XVII

    The overall mean of zinc levels in blood plasma and seminal plasma under mild climate were 9. This result indicated that zinc level in plasma was 2. Zinc is an important essential nutrient that is required at every stage of the life cycle and its functions in large number of zinc metallo-enzymes and also is required for normal growth, development and function in all animals [21].

    Therefore, lesser degrees of deficiency are most pronounced during periods of rapid growth and in those cells or tissues that either turn over or grow most rapidly. Characteristics of deficiency include growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, skeletal abnormalities and impaired reproduction in both males and females [21]. Effects heat stress conditions of summer season on selenium concentrations. The overall mean of selenium levels in blood plasma and seminal plasma under mild climate were 2.

    This result indicated that selenium level in plasma was 0. Selenium is an integral part of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase which converts hydrogen peroxide to water and is an important component of the cellular antioxidant system [9]. The glutathione peroxidase enzyme is also related to functions the cytosol of the cell; protects polymorphonuclear neutrophils against reactive oxygen species production, increases survival of leukocytes involved in cellular defence and improves the activity of these cells in the mammary gland [22].

    The positive role of selenium in the immune system is well documented by [23]. Selenium was identified as a component of type I iodothyronine5? Several selenoproteins have been identified with functions connected to the thyroid hormone metabolism, testes and sperm function and muscle metabolism [9]. Concentrations of selenium in serum and whole blood have been used as an index of selenium status because, in general, increased concentrations of selenium in serum or whole blood have been related to reduced mastitis and improved neutrophil function [24].

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    A lack of selenium lowers the production of leucotrienes of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and thus lowers chemotaxis of neutrophils [25]. The concentration of selenium in milk is increased when cows are fed additional selenium. Selenium concentration of milk ranges from 0.

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    It can be concluded that exposure of rabbits to 9 , vit. On the other hand, selenium in seminal plasma was higher than that concentration in blood plasma by 2 times, indicating the importance of selenium in spermatogenesis process in the testes. Toggle navigation. Toggle navigation Browse Journal. Related Conference. Animal housing and management The animals were housed in a part of the Rabbitary building during winter and summer conditions. Estimation of vitamin, hormones and trace elements in blood and semen Blood samples were collected from the bucks at two weeks intervals during experimental periods.

    Reproductive traits of male rabbits as affected by climatic conditions, in the subtropical environment of Egypt. Animal Science. Performance of New Zealand White and Californian male weaned rabbits in the subtropical environment of Egypt. Animal science Journal. Thermoregulation in Rabbits.

    Zagazig University, Egypt, ; 8: Rabbits productive, reproductive and physiological performance traits as affected by heat stress a review. Livestock Production Science. Bender DA.