Certificates can be used to encrypt network traffic, application traffic, and used to authenticate users and computers. When you see https in a browser address that means it is using a certificate to encrypt the communication from the client to the server. Domain Name System is a service that provides name resolution, most commonly hostname to IP address resolution.
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In this section, you will learn about some of the important components of DNS. A resource record is an entry in the DNS system that helps locate resources based on IP or a domain name. There are many types of resource records, below is a list of common record types:. This is a feature that can be enabled to help automate the cleanup of stale DNS records.
DNS forwarders are servers that resolve hostnames that your internal DNS server cannot resolve, primarily external domains such as internet browsing. Root hint server is another method to resolve hostnames that your internal server cannot resolve. The difference is these servers serve as the root DNS zone for the internet. They are managed by several large organized for security and redundancy.
You can use either root hints or forwards to resolve external names. Complete List of DNS resource record types. Root Hints vs Forwarders.
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Replication is the process that ensures changes made to one domain controller are replicated to other domain controllers in the domain. The connection object specifics which domain controllers replicate with each other, how often and their naming contexts. The Knowledge Consistency Checker KCC is a process that runs on all domain controllers and generates a replication topology based off the sites, subnets and site link objects. A subnet is a logical portion of an IP network. Subnets are used to group devices into a specific network, often by location, building or floor. If you have a multisite environment, Active Directory needs to know about your subnets so it can properly identify the most efficient resources.
If this information is not provided clients can authenticate and use the wrong domain controller. A site is a collection of subnets. The Active Directory sites help define the replication flow and resource location for clients such as a domain controller. A site link bridge is a logical connection between sites. It is a method to logically represent transitive connectivity between sites.
The site topology is a map that defines the network connectivity for replication and location for resources in the Active Directory forest. The site topology consistent of several components including sites, subnets, site links, site link bridges, and connection objects. In an environment with multiple sites, a change in one site needs to be replicated to the other site.
This is called Inter-Site replication. How Active Directory Replication Works. Active Directory Replication Concepts. Kerberos is a security protocol that securely allows users to prove their identity to gain access to domain resources. KDC is a service that runs on domain controllers and supplies session tickets used in the Kerberos authentication protocol. NTLM is a collection of security protocols used to authenticate, provide integrity and confidentiality to users.
Kerberos is the preferred authentication protocol and is used in modern Windows versions, NTLM is still available for older clients and systems on a workgroup. NTFS permissions allow you to define who is authorized to access a file or folder.
Below is a list of the basic permissions you can set:. Share permissions define the level of access to shared resources such as a folder. There are three basic shared permissions:. If no ACE is present the system denies all access to the object.
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Kerberos for the Busy Admin. Windows Authentication Technical Overview. Access Control Lists. This section includes the management consoles you will need to use to manage the various Active Directory technologies. This console is used to raise the domain mode or functional level of a domain or forest. It is also used to manage trust relationships.
This is the main console for managing replication. This console is used to manage site topology objects, connection objects, schedule replication, manually force replication, enable the global catalog, and enable universal group caching. For example, I use it to block mobile devices from connecting to our secure wifi. A superscope is a collection of individual DHCP scopes. This can be used when you want to join to scopes together. This is a method of providing fault tolerance for a DHCP scope. Using DHCP failover is not the preferred method for fault tolerance.
DCHP failover was a new feature starting in server version If one server becomes unavailable the other server takes over. DHCP Parameters. Group policy allows you to centrally manage user and computer settings. You can use group policy to set password policies, auditing policies, lock screen, map drives, deploy software, one drive, office settings and much more. Client workstations and member servers refresh their policies every 90 minutes. To avoid overwhelming the domain controllers their is a random offset interval added to every machine.
This prevents all the machines from requesting group policy upgrades from the DC at the same time and potentially crashing it. By default, group policy objects are inherited. To change this behavior you can use the block inheritance option at an OU level. In a GPO there are user and computer settings. User settings only apply to user objects. The computer settings in a GPO are settings that can be applied to a computer.
If you configure the computer settings the GPO must be applied to computer objects. Pre-landing checks system popular in private pilot licence training. But Unfortunately Not Dead Yet. A further example of how dark humour is used to counter the darker aspects of human experience. Ack DW.
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