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The Military Museum of Mongolia's collection consists of two permanent exhibition halls, showcasing the war history of the country from pre-historic times to the modern era. In the first hall, one can see various tools and weapons from Paleolithic age to the times of Manchu empire. The modern history exhibition hall showcases the history of the Mongolian military, starting with the Bogd Khan period —24 up until Mongolia's recent military involvement in peacekeeping operations.

Although the building's condition is dire, the Victims of Political Persecution Memorial Museum tells about one of the most tragic history of Mongolia's 20th century. It is dedicated to those fallen under the political purge that took the lives of over 32, statesmen, herders, scholars, politicians and lamas. The city's museum offers a view of Ulaanbaatar's history through old maps and photos. The most interesting item is a huge painting of the capital as it looked in that shows major landmarks such as Gandan Monastery and the Winter Palace of the Bogd Khan.

Part of the museum is dedicated to special photo exhibits that change frequently. Mongolian Railway History Museum is an open-air museum that displays 6 types of locomotives used during a year period of Mongolian Railways history. The Puzzle Toys Museum displays a comprehensive collection of complex wooden toys players can assemble.

Ruins of the Tsogchin Temple of Manjusri Monastery. Vajradhara Temple in the center, Zuu Temple on the left, connected by a passage built in Chinggis Square , in the government district, is the center of Ulaanbaatar. The square is 31, square metres , square feet in size.

Peace Avenue Enkh Taivny Urgon Chuloo , the main thoroughfare through town, runs along the south side of the square. The Zaisan Memorial includes a Soviet tank paid for by the Mongolian people and a circular memorial painting which in the socialist realism style depicts scenes of friendship between the peoples of the Soviet Union and Mongolia.

Visitors who make the long climb to the top are rewarded with a panoramic view of the whole city down in the valley.

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National Sports Stadium is the main sporting venue. The Naadam festival is held here every July. Ulaanbaatar features a mix of traditional and western style theatres, offering world class performances. Many of the traditional folklore bands play regularly around the world including in New York, London and Tokyo. The Ulaanbaatar Opera House , situated in the center of the city, hosts concerts and musical performances. It has the largest orchestra of traditional instruments in the country with a repertoire going beyond national music, encompassing dozens of international musical pieces.

The Tumen Ekh Ensemble comprises artists who perform all types of Mongolian song, music and dance.

Mongolian Art and Culture

They play traditional instruments including the morin khuur horse head fiddle and perform Mongolian long song, epic and eulogy songs, a ritualistic shaman ritual dance, an ancient palace dance and a Tsam mask dance. It is a popular ensemble featuring the national string instrument Morin Khuur and performs various domestic and international works.

A number of nationally known parks and protected areas belong officially to the city. It is accessible via paved road. Bogd Khan mountain is a strictly protected area, with a length of 31 kilometres 19 miles and width of 3 kilometres 1. Nature conservation dates back to the twelfth and thirteenth century when the Toorl Khan of Mongolian Ancient Keraite Aimag — who prohibited logging and hunting activities — claimed the Bogd Khan as a holy mountain.

It is also a popular place for youngsters to hang out. This small amusement park features rides, games and paddle boats. The National Park of Mongolia opened its doors in the southeastern outskirts of the city in , becoming a popular summer park for the UB goers.

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It has a total area of 55 hectares with over K trees planted. The park is geared towards becoming educational center for healthy responsible living as well as environmental education. Ulaanbaatar's main religion is Buddhism.

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The city is also the see of the Roman Catholic missionary circonscription for all Outer Mongolia. In its right hand is a key, a symbol of prosperity and openness, and in its left is a lotus flower, a symbol of peace, equality and purity. In its talons it is holding a snake, a symbol of evil of which it is intolerant. There are many public elementary, middle and high schools. In Mongolia, 1—4th grade is elementary, 5—8th is middle and is high school.

Additionally, there are many private schools that offer bilingual programs. The National Library of Mongolia is located in Ulaanbaatar and includes an extensive historical collection, items in non-Mongolian languages and a special children's collection. The Metropolitan Central Library of Ulaanbaatar, sometimes also referred to as the Ulaanbaatar Public Library, is a public library with a collection of about , items.

It has an impressive , annual users and a total of , loans per year. They also host websites on classical and modern Mongolian literature and food, in addition to providing free Internet access. This system coordinates management, acquisitions, finances and policy among public libraries in the capital, in addition to providing support to school and children's libraries. They are in the Chingeltei District established in , in the Han-Uul District established in , in the Bayanzurkh District established in and in the Songino-Hairkhan District established in There is also a Children's Central Library, which was established in The International Children's Digital Library ICDL is an organization that publishes numerous children's books in different languages on the web in child-friendly formats.

In they began service in Mongolia and have made efforts to provide access to the library in rural areas.

Since Mongolia lacks a publishing industry , and few children's books, the idea has been to "spur the publishing industry to create new children's books for classroom libraries in grades 1—5. While a significant portion of this project is supported by outside sources, an important component is to include training of Mongolian staff to make it continue in an effective way. It is a collection of 45 newspaper titles with a particular focus on the years after the fall of communism in Mongolia. The Metropolitan Central Library in Ulaanbaatar maintains a digital monthly news archive.

Its goal is to facilitate research between Mongolia and the rest of the world and to foster academic partnerships.

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To help achieve this end, it operates a research library with a reading room and computers for Internet access. ACMS has 1, volumes related to Mongolia in numerous languages that may be borrowed with a deposit. It also hosts an online library that includes special reference resources and access to digital databases, [75] including a digital book collection. There is a Speaking Library at School for the visually impaired, funded by the Zorig Foundation , and the collection is largely based on materials donated by Mongolian National Radio.

The materials in the collection have a strong focus on both aiding Mongolians studying Japanese and books in Japanese about Mongolia. It includes a number of periodicals, textbooks, dictionaries and audio-visual materials. Access to the collection does require payment of a Tugrug fee, though materials are available for loan.

They also provide audio-visual equipment for collection use and internet access for an hourly fee. There is an information retrieval reference service for questions that cannot be answered by their collection. There is a manuscript collection at the Danzan Ravjaa Museum of theological , poetic , medicinal , astrological and theatrical works. It consists of literature written and collected by the monk Danzan Ravjaa , who is famous for his poetry. The British Library's Endangered Archives Programme funded a project to take digital images of unique literature in the collection; however, it is not clear where the images are stored today.

There are rail connections to the Trans-Siberian railway via Naushki and to the Chinese railway system via Jining. Ulaanbaatar is connected by road to most of the major towns in Mongolia, but most roads in Mongolia are unpaved and unmarked, and road travel can be difficult. Even within the city, not all roads are paved and some of the ones that are paved are not in good condition. Existing plans to improve transportation include a subway system , several major road projects such as a 1,kilometre-long mile highway to link Ulaanbaatar to the regions of Altanbulag and Zamyn Uud , [86] plans to upgrade existing regional airports and roadways, and Mongolian Railway projects that will connect cities and mines.

The national and municipal governments regulate a system of private transit providers which operate bus lines around the city.

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There is also an Ulaanbaatar trolleybus system. A secondary transit system of privately owned microbuses passenger vans operates alongside these bus lines. Additionally, Ulaanbaatar has over taxis. The capital has Air pollution is a serious problem in Ulaanbaatar, especially in winter. Concentrations of certain types of particulate matter PM10 regularly exceed WHO recommended maximum levels by more than a dozen times. They also exceed the concentrations measured in northern Chinese industrial cities. During the winter months, smoke regularly obscures vision and can even lead to problems with air traffic at the local airport.

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Sources of the pollution are mainly the simple stoves used for heating and cooking in the city's ger districts , but also the local coal-fueled power plants. The problem is compounded by Ulaanbaatar's location in a valley between relatively high mountains, which shield the city from the winter winds and thus obstruct air circulation. Ulaanbaatar is twinned with:. Ulaanbaatar has close ties to cities like Seoul 1, kilometres or 1, miles from UB , Hong Kong 2, kilometres or 1, miles from UB , Tokyo 3, kilometres or 1, miles from UB and Moscow 4, kilometres or 2, miles from UB.

The Zamyn Uud - Erenhot and Altanbulag - Kyakhta borders are the only places where sustained interaction occurs between Mongolia and its neighbors. Other ports are much smaller. For now Ulaanbaatar remains the main, and almost only, point of contact between Mongolia and its neighbors. Beijing remains the closest global city to Ulaanbaatar. The UB-Peking corridor is served by busy air, rail and road links. In the novel it had a medium-wave station for communications.

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